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Digital transformation of business and IT at the scale of company, corporate, canton, city, country, confederation, continent, community

Digital Transformation of an enterprise (also a city, country, industry, etc.) necessitates that primary artefacts of an enterprise (e.g. products and services) are available in digital form to reap advantages of being digital. Such digital form (i.e. formal, explicit, computer-readable and computer-executable presentation) may co-exist with other forms – material, analogical, bionic, etc. 


For example, a house may be designed in a digital form which is used to command 3D industrial printer to build this house in a material form. See also


At present Digital Transformation is a daunting activity, because in the digital world, everything must be accurate, reliable, reliable, and so on. In the digital world, in comparison with the material world, everything is faster, more complex and bigger. At such speeds and scopes, a person is too unreliable (often makes mistakes) and is too slow (not quickly his and others correct mistakes). Therefore, all elements of the digital enterprise must be perfectly mutually consistent, and the wrong elements of the digital enterprise should be switched off immediately, in order to avoid the possible increase in damage. Changing even one bit can lead to a rapid collapse, like a "house of cards". Thus, any digital enterprise to be successful must be a Digital System.


Digital Systems of our interest (enterprises, cities, homes, building, countries, etc.) are a mixture of various know types of systems:

  • uber-complex systems
  • real-time systems
  • cyber-physical systems
  • socio-technical systems
  • information systems
  • classic IT systems
  • self-referential systems


Digital systems have the following specifics:

  • dealing with economic,social, technological, legislative and environmental aspects
  • digital data and information in huge volumes
  • software-intensive
  • distributed and decentralized
  • great influence on our society
  • ability to interact with the physical world
  • security, safety, privacy and resilience by design


With all this complexity, Digital Systems must be smart by design or, in other words, being able to achieve their goals in a sustainable (with maintaining stability) way. Thus such systems must have the following emergent characteristics:

  • explicitly architected and engineered for evolution;
  • combining diversity and uniformity;
  • short time to market; and
  • low cost of operations.


We believe that Digital Systems are built with primary use of:

  • common architectural and technological approaches;
  • potentials of information and communication technologies, and
  • modern IT tools.


To build right, good and successful Digital Systems we propose our Digital Toolbox for Digital Transformation. See

Also, see our English blog ( and Russian blog ( ) and follow us on LinkedIn , Twitter and Facebook .


For more details, please contact Alexander Samarin.


mobile: +41 76 573 40 61

Alexander Samarin



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